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Thread: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

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    Exclamation New theory postulates DE and DM are the same



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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Now this is interesting. Thanks for the link.

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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Interesting is mild. If a negative mass fluid exists and is controllable then a warp drive like the Alcubierre drive becomes possible and not just sci fi fantasy. I'll need to check further. Last time I looked negative mass objects were excluded by relativity.

    To quickly summarize, if negative mass matter exists, then:
    1) warp drive is possible
    2) stable traversible wormholes are possible (as long as the positive traversing mass is much less than the stabilization negative mass)

    So I'll need to make a deep dive to see exactly how this works to get around the forbidden negative mass density in General Relativity and see if it is for real.
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Starting the dive the arXiv paper is here: https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962

    The abstract remains intriguing.

    Dark energy and dark matter constitute 95% of the observable Universe. Yet the physical nature of these two phenomena remains a mystery. Einstein suggested a long-forgotten solution: gravitationally repulsive negative masses, which drive cosmic expansion and cannot coalesce into light-emitting structures. However, contemporary cosmological results are derived upon the reasonable assumption that the Universe only contains positive masses. By reconsidering this assumption, I have constructed a toy model which suggests that both dark phenomena can be unified into a single negative mass fluid. The model is a modified ΛCDM cosmology, and indicates that continuously-created negative masses can resemble the cosmological constant and can flatten the rotation curves of galaxies. The model leads to a cyclic universe with a time-variable Hubble parameter, potentially providing compatibility with the current tension that is emerging in cosmological measurements. In the first three-dimensional N-body simulations of negative mass matter in the scientific literature, this exotic material naturally forms haloes around galaxies that extend to several galactic radii. These haloes are not cuspy. The proposed cosmological model is therefore able to predict the observed distribution of dark matter in galaxies from first principles. The model makes several testable predictions and seems to have the potential to be consistent with observational evidence from distant supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, and galaxy clusters. These findings may imply that negative masses are a real and physical aspect of our Universe, or alternatively may imply the existence of a superseding theory that in some limit can be modelled by effective negative masses. Both cases lead to the surprising conclusion that the compelling puzzle of the dark Universe may have been due to a simple sign error.
    Will read the paper and report details.
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Many thanks nFA, I look forward to your thoughts.

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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    It's interesting. I'm not a fan yet, but I am intrigued.

    Apparently at one point Einstein thought of the cosmological constant term as a negative mass entity but gave up on that for no clear reason. The original idea was some sort of duality where positive masses were points and were "balanced" in some sense by negative mass in space itself. Odd.

    The author considers a model in which the Newtonian equivalent of gravity for two bodies acts thus:

    1) two positive masses attract and accelerate toward each other
    2) two negative masses attract and accelerate toward each other
    3) but with a positive and a negative mass, the masses are accelerated AWAY from each other with the positive mass accelerating away from the negative mass and the negative mass accelerating toward the positive mass

    He apparently shows that momentum and energy conservation are not violated by such a scheme.

    So space becomes a negative mass object and the properties of clusters and galaxy rotation curves are explained by the negative mass space (dark energy) pressing in on regions with positive mass. This is highly cute and amusing.

    The spontaneous creation idea of Bondi and Hoyle is invoked but only for the negative mass that constitutes space. No positive mass objects are created, so the universe is not in a steady state.

    He shows how dark matter halos get formed and how galaxies and clusters get formed. Basically all the standard cosmology tests that MOND fails are passed.

    Some interesting observations can be made:

    1)
    It may be possible to directly validate this theory via the direct capture and detection of a negative mass particle. Particles undergoing runaway motion would be highly scattered due to Brownian motion (see Section 3.4), resulting in an observed isotropic distribution on the sky. At face-value, this is consistent with the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and could lead to particles with energies above the Greisen Zatsepin Kuzmin (GZK) limit, such as the so-called Oh My God particle.
    2) He is modeling with particles that are symmetric in mass but different in sign. More complicated models are possible. CERN will be testing whether other models in which antimatter has negative mass is the case. But his model doesn't care about the outcome of that experiment.

    3)
    It seems that the proposed negative mass fluid can be modelled as either matter or vacuum energy. It has previously been proposed that space-time arises as a form of large-scale condensate of more fundamental objects, that are typically of an unknown nature (e.g. Liberati & Maccione 2014). One could therefore speculate that the negative masses could be interpretable as a quantised form of energy associated with space-time itself.
    4)
    The introduction of negative masses to the vacuum can also potentially provide a solution to the cosmological constant problem. The predicted vacuum energy can be a factor of 10^123 larger than the observed value (e.g. Hobson, Efstathiou, & Lasenby 2006). By invoking negative masses, the vacuum energy density can now take on essentially any value depending upon the precise cancellation of positive and negative energy states.
    5) It is proposed that there might be an observable graviton modeled as a combination of a positive mass particle and a negative mass particle. This might be more detectable than a classical graviton.

    6) Negative mass particles cannot be electrically charged and so would not form structures like atoms. They'd stay diffuse like dark matter apparently does.

    7) Questions:
    No attempt has been made to reconcile the presented theory with the standard model of particle physics. Can a viable Higgs mechanism allow for a negative mass? Is there a way to introduce negative masses into the standard model that could allow for the combination of fundamental forces at high energies, in a grand unified theory? Would supersymmetry be required? Is it possible that a negative mass particle travelling backwards in time may be measured as having a positive mass? These questions would be interesting future avenues that could be explored further by the particle physics community.
    Some of the conclusions section is worth quoting in full:

    1. The geometry of the universe in this cosmology has negative spatial curvature, k = −1.
    2. The continuous creation of negative masses can resemble a cosmological constant, with Λ < 0.
    3. Negative masses can give rise to a time-variable Hubble parameter.
    4. Negative masses can be intrinsically attracted towards regions of positive mass, thereby leading to an increase in density that manifests itself as a dark matter halo that extends out to several galactic radii.
    5. Due to mutual self-repulsion between negative masses, dark matter haloes formed from negative masses are not cuspy, and could thereby possibly provide a resolution of the cuspy-halo problem.
    6. The rotation curves of galaxies can be flattened by the negative masses in the surrounding dark matter halo, however the curve is also predicted to increase linearly in the outermost regions of galaxies. This may be consistent with previous observational findings, which have found that most rotation curves are rising slowly even at the farthest measured point (e.g. Rubin, Ford, & Thonnard 1980).
    7. Structure formation appears to be able to take place in a positive and negative mass universe, leading to the conventional suite of filaments, voids, rich clusters, and field galaxies.
    8. Supernovae observations of a positive cosmological constant made the reasonable critical assumption that all mass is positive. Upon relaxing this assumption, the supernovae data of Riess et al. (1998); Perlmutter et al. (1999) themselves derive a negative mass density in the Universe.
    9. It appears that the first acoustic peak in the CMB could naturally emerge at the correct scale in a negative mass cosmology. Several additional physical effects on the CMB need to be fully considered, and determining the effects that negative masses have on the second, third, and higher order CMB peaks can enable a robust test to either validate or rule out the presence of negative mass in the Universe.
    10. In this cosmology, negative masses are distributed throughout all of space-time, so that galaxy clusters cannot represent standard buckets. A number of galaxy cluster observations appear to have inferred the presence of negative mass in cluster environments.
    11. The introduction of negative masses can lead to an Anti- de Sitter space. This would correspond to one of the most researched areas of string theory, the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, and if applicable to our own Universe, would suggest that string theory may possibly have direct physical applications.
    12. Negative masses are predicted to produce a vacuum instability, which would suggest the vacuum itself is undergoing a slow and stable decay. In this cosmology, the universe would be taking on an increasingly negative energy state due to the continuous creation of negative masses. While such a vacuum instability is normally considered to be a theoretical insufficiency of negative masses, in this particular case it is not a bug, but rather a feature of the proposed cosmology.
    I'm pleased with the read. Unlike MOND this is a really well motivated theory. I'm impressed.
    Last edited by not_Fritz_Argelander; 12-05-2018 at 04:36 PM.
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    I guess that would simplify things quite a bit, but why continuous creation of negative mass only? Why not positive mass also?
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Quote Originally Posted by jcj380 View Post
    I guess that would simplify things quite a bit, but why continuous creation of negative mass only? Why not positive mass also?
    That is ruled out by observation. Positive mass dilutes as the universe expands as shown by spectroscopy of the interstellar medium.
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    That should have read "spectroscopy of the intergalactic medium". Essentially the density of (positive mass) matter falls off strictly as the inverse cube of the factor by which the universe expands. It would fall off more slowly if matter (positive mass) were being created. One can check this with galaxy counts and hydrogen Lyman alpha spectra of the gas between the galaxies. That gas shows up as redshifted absorption lines.
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    Default Re: New theory postulates DE and DM are the same

    Intriguing indeed! Here I was all tired and drowsy and now I'm wide-awake.
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