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Thread: Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium

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    Default Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium



    Hi, everybody. I thought I would take some time to write up a thread describing, step by step, how to create a custom landscape in Stellarium. A custom landscape will give you the ability to "preview" the night sky from your favorite observing location, and can help you to identify faint constellations by giving you a location reference on the ground. It's also just plain slick to have your own personal landscape loaded into Stellarium!

    I've got ~40 images illustrating the process, and each post restricts to 10 images, so this will take several posts in the thread to get through. So let's get started!

    Step 1: Take photos of your favorite observing location

    These photos should be taken of the horizon, while standing (or sitting) at your favorite observation area, during the day. They should be ordered from left to right, with about 20% overlap between each photo. Only shoot the horizon; don't try to capture the area around your feet. Here are the first few photos from my sample panorama:

    Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium-sta_0179.jpg Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium-stb_0180.jpg Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium-stc_0181.jpg Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium-std_0182.jpg Creating custom landscapes in Stellarium-ste_0183.jpg

    Notice how I've overlapped the photos a bit. Be sure you take enough photos that you complete a full 360 degree field -- if you leave any gaps, the landscape won't work right! It took me 11 photos to get a full set to assemble a panorama.

    For each photo you take in the sequence, each must follow these three rules:

    1. The photo should overlap about 20% of the previous photo's edge

    2. The photo should be framed so that the horizon is near the TOP of the image.

    3. The photo must ALWAYS be to the right of the previous photo -- no moving up and down, or back to the left. Always move left to right.

    Don't skimp on #2 to achieve #1 -- if you have tall parts of your horizon (trees, etc) then do your best to capture them, but ONLY if it won't cause the overlap to shrink too small.
    Attached Images Attached Images
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    Wow this is Awesome. Thanks
    Gusztav

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    Step 2: Load the images into hugin, the panorama stitcher

    Now that you have your horizon photos, copy them from your camera card into a temporary directory:
    01_photos.png

    Before continuing, make sure you have a copy of Hugin installed on your computer. If you run Linux, this should be as simple as yum install hugin or apt-get install hugin or something like that. Hugin is a free, open-source panorama stitcher that works for Linux, Windows, and possibly other OSes. The instructions to follow assume you're using Hugin on a Linux machine; if you're using Windows you'll have to make some adjustments as you go.

    OK, so since you have Hugin installed, let's get going creating that panorama. The first thing you'll have to do (on Linux, at least) is create a symlink to work around a bug I found. The symlink just routes the current directory back onto itself:
    02_symlink.png

    Next, start up hugin by running "hugin" at the command line. The startup window has a bunch of tabs across the top that we're going to mostly ignore. For now, notice the "load images" button. Click that to load your panorama source images.
    03_hugin_load.png

    Select all of the images from your panorama and click Open.
    04_load_images.png

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    Step 3: Align the images and set the crop extents

    Now that your images are loaded, you need to tell Hugin how each image is related to the others -- how they're aligned. Luckily, Hugin has some pretty smart software built-in that can do this for you. Click the Align button and it'll kick off a job to align all the photos:
    05_align.png

    This takes a minute or two, during which you should see a screen like this:
    06_align_running.png

    Once the alignment finishes, you should see a preview window pop up, with more confusing tabs, that again we're going to mostly ignore. Notice that in the preview, most of the panorama is obscured, with just a small area showing through -- Hugin tries to figure out the "best" area of matches, and auto-crops to that area. That's no good though -- we need all 360 degrees!
    07_preview_precrop.png

    So to set the full crop area, click the "crop" tab at the top of the preview window, and grab the crop handles in the gridded preview window, and extend the crop area to the full left-right extent, and as much of the top-bottom extent as makes sense.
    08_crop_adjust.png

    When you're done, you should be able to see your entire horizon unobscured. Be SURE that you've gotten the full left-right extent of the image selected, or things will not work!
    09_cropped.png

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    Step 4: Create the panorama

    Once you've got the crop settings right, click the "x" in the top right of the preview window. Hugin will remember your settings; you don't need to "save" them.

    You should be back at the "main" window. Click the "stitcher" tab at the top right, which should take you to this screen:
    11.png

    Select "PNG" as the output format:
    12_create_panorama.png

    Now go back to the "Assistant" tab at the top left, and click "Create Panorama".
    10_stitcher.png

    You'll be prompted with a "save" dialog. You can use the default name, or enter something descriptive. Just don't use the same name as the directory your photos are in! Also, the .pto file needs to go in the same directory as your photos.
    13_save_as.png

    When you click "save", it's going to pop up yet another dialog...just accept the default it provides and click "Save" again.
    14_save_again.png

    At this point, the panorama begins building. Depending on the size of your input photos, and the speed of your computer, this could take up to 10-30 minutes.

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    C10-N/C14+Losmandy G11; Portaball 12.5"; NexStar 6SE; Meade ETX125; Stellarvue F80
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    Step 5: Examine the output

    Before we continue, we need to verify that everything worked properly.

    Here's the listing of the output, in my example. Notice there's a .pto file -- that's the Hugin data file. There's also a .png file -- that's your new landscape. It's big!!!
    16_big_panorama.png

    I use eye of gnome to preview the landscape -- if you don't have eog installed, you can use something else. The important thing is to verify that the landscape looks correct, and that the areas around the original photos is showing up as transparent (the checkerboard pattern in eog indicates transparency).
    17_panorama_preview.png

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    Step 6: Load into GIMP and scale the image

    The next few steps are going to take place in the GIMP, a free, open-source image manipulation program -- think "Photoshop", but free. On Linux, if you don't have the GIMP installed, you should be able to "yum install gimp" or "apt-get install gimp" or something along those lines. For Windows, you can go download it and install, or if you are able to follow along in Photoshop, or your favorite image program, that's fine too. It's not rocket science what we're doing here.

    First up, here's what your GIMP screen will look like, after loading up your big giant panorama:
    18_gimp.png

    Right-click on some empty space in the image window and select image->scale image -- we're going to resize the image to meet Stellarium's requirements.
    19_scale_image.png

    Here's the parameters you want. Enter "2048" for the width, and GIMP should automatically calculate the appropriate height. It won't be the same as what you see in my example. Just make sure that the width is 2048. Click Scale to resize the image. It'll look tiny now in the window; use the "+" and "-" keys on your numeric keypad to zoom in and out.
    20_scale_parameters.png

    Our next task is to extend the canvas size to 1024 pixels in height. Right-click an empty space on the image again and select image->canvas size
    21_canvas_size.png

    The parameters this time will be similar to before, only you want to click the little "chain" locking the height and width together. Set the height to 1024; the width should stay 2048. Click Resize to resize the canvas.
    22_canvas_parameters.png

    A cleanup task is now required to make things easier. Right-click the "Background" layer on the right, and select "layer to image size".

    Up next...the toughest part of all...and it's not even that hard. Don't fret! I'll walk you through it.

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    Step 7: Create a new layer and clear the background, then set the horizon point

    OK...these are probably the toughest steps to explain, so I'm going to try and do my best. Our goal here is to take the panorama and center it on the canvas so that the photographic horizon is aligned precisely with vertical pixel number 512. Why 512? Because Stellarium takes this big 2048x1024 image and stretches it over a sphere that is 360 degrees around and 180 degrees from top to bottom. The horizon is dead center between the top and the bottom, right? Well pixel 512 is dead center in a 1024-pixel tall image.

    Before we get started, we need to create a layer that we are able to move around -- the background is static.

    Right-click the "background" layer and select "duplicate layer" to create a new layer:
    23_duplicate_layer.png

    Next, select the Background layer, and press "Ctrl+A" to select all, then press "delete" on the keyboard. This will wipe out the background, leaving only the new layer as the one with actual content. Notice that the thumbnail of the background shows that it's blank:
    24_blank_background.png

    Select the "Background copy" layer -- that's the one we're going to move around. Press "m" on the keyboard to activate "move mode".

    With your mouse, hover the cursor over the location that you believe is associated with the horizon. For me, I was able to determine, after sighting along a bubble level, that a certain part of the fence was in line with the actual horizon (which is obscured on all sides in my case). Put the cursor over that spot as precisely as you can, then press and hold the left mouse button. This will activate the movement. Start dragging the mouse down (or up). Once you've started moving the layer, press and hold the "ctrl" key on the keyboard while still holding the left mouse button down. This will activate "orthogonal" mode, where GIMP will try to align your movements precisely up-down or left-right. In your case, you want to be sure that you do not move the image left-to-right, only up and down.

    Use the ruler on the left side of the screen to find pixel #512. You'll notice that GIMP draws a score line on the ruler where your cursor is currently positioned. This will help you to move the image so that your cursor position (which you've grabbed at the horizon point) gets moved to exactly pixel 512.

    You may need to do this several times to get the desired amount of precision -- here's what my screen looked like at the end, zoomed in 1600% and zeroing in those last few pixels of height.
    25_center_horizon.png

    Whew! Got that? Good! Next up, we'll get the image cleaned up so Stellarium knows where the horizon actually starts...

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    Step 8: Erase the sky from the image, and backfill the ground

    Our goal in this step is to erase the sky from the image (so that stellarium can draw stars into it), and to backfill the ground (so that it knows NOT to draw stars in it).

    The more precision you put into cutting the sky out of your image, the better the resulting landscape will look in stellarium. Going the extra mile and cutting out the little holes of sky in between tree branches, for example, can make for a very realistic experience! In my example here, I take the "path of least resistance" so to speak.

    First, I use the "fuzzy select tool", which allows me to select regions of sky by color.
    26_fuzzy_select.png

    I clicked on a bunch of patches of sky, each time hitting the "delete" key on the keyboard to wipe it from the layer. The checkerboard pattern is "blank" -- you want the sky to be blank. After knocking out most of the sky with the fuzzy select tool, I ended up with something like this:
    27_after_fuzzy.png

    I then switched to the "free select" tool (or "lasso") to clean up the remaining bits of sky.
    28_lasso.png

    If there are *any* pixels remaining, Stellarium will refuse to draw stars over those spots, and your resulting landscape will look very bad. Use the lasso tool to select the entire sky area. I start outside the canvas, then carefully work my way along the horizon. At the rightmost side of the horizon, I jump outside, then round my way around the canvas back to where I started. This ensures I grab EVERYTHING above the horizon. Then press "delete" on the keyboard and away it goes, giving you something like this:
    29_delete_leftovers.png

    Finally, use whatever method you like to fill in the area UNDER the horizon. Otherwise, Stellarium will draw stars there too, which looks weird. While I was at it, I also cleaned up the tree (the top of which was cropped out in my photo). I ended up with this:
    30_final_panorama.png

    Our last step in the GIMP is next -- saving our image in a format that Stellarium can understand.

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    ES 70░ 15mm, 20mm; ES 82░ 30mm, 18mm; ES 100░ 9mm; Baader Hyperion 24mm; TV Nagler T6 13mm
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    Step 9: Save the image

    We now need to save the image in PNG format, ensuring we preserve the transparency property.

    Right-click the image and select "file->save as". First, save the image as a GIMP XCF image -- that way if you need to adjust it later (for example, if you find you got your horizon height a bit wrong) you can come back and fix it.
    31_save_gimp_source.png

    Go through the file->save as again, this time selecting "PNG image" as the file type.
    32_save_as.png

    GIMP will ask you if you want to flatten or merge the layers -- be sure you pick "merge"
    33_merge_visible_layers.png

    You now have saved a PNG of the finished 2048x1024 landscape -- preview it in your favorite image viewer. Be sure that the sky is transparent!!
    34_verify_transparency.png

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    C10-N/C14+Losmandy G11; Portaball 12.5"; NexStar 6SE; Meade ETX125; Stellarvue F80
    Meade HD-60 9mm, 6.5mm; 56mm; University Optics Orthoscopic 12.5mm, 9mm, 7mm, 5mm;
    ES 70░ 15mm, 20mm; ES 82░ 30mm, 18mm; ES 100░ 9mm; Baader Hyperion 24mm; TV Nagler T6 13mm
    William Optics Binoviewer; GSO 2" 2x ED barlow; 5x APO barlow, Parks 2.5x APO barlow
    Filters: Orion Ultrablock, Thousand Oaks OIII

 

 
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