I am astrophysics student learning about astronomical data reduction.... in reading some of the papers I have found on the net (in relation to removing fringing) I have been confused as I do not know what the exact definition of some of the frame names that are being mentioned...

what i do know:

a flat field as an area of sky that is ideally completely free from any astronom. objects, an exposure of this is taking in order to ensure that the science frame pixels scale linearly with the amount of photons recieved...

what I am unsure:

I think sky flats are intended to serve the same function as flat field frames, but these are not aimed at an empty patch of sky, instead they are of the same patch of sky as the object of interest is but the object(s) itself is removed by some rejection method.
Can please confirm and elaborate on this?

what I have no clue of:

what are superflats?!

Finally, any advice on methods to remove fringing are appreciated!